Objections raised by critics have teen carefully considered. — The temporary exchange ol wives, pp, 130-134, — Proioiacuous intercourse inaulgeo ID at certain feasts, p. CONTENTS xlx CHAPTER VII CKt Ticrew or the hvpothiu* or Mtoutscutir : iiu mjuaificatokv KVSIBM or Rit JLTio KSHir Dncriptirc "hiw I" c Js Mificatory ayklcnu o( rdationxhlp." pp. 149-157, — The cl Auificaloty letnu tised as tenni of addrs M. But," he adds, " while thb general mental similarity may, I believe, be taken as established, we must always be on our guard against tracing to it a multitude of particular resemblances which may be and often are due to simple diffusion, since nothing is more certain than that the various races of men have borrowed from each other many of their arts and crafts, their ideas, customs, and institutions." * I quote these state- ments in reply to the charge made in a Presidential Address to the Anthropological Section of the British Association a few years ago, that where similarities are found in different ' Tylor. It is with questions of this sort that the evolu- tionary school of sociologists have pre-eminently occupied ' Gracbaer, op. And their compamtiw method has gieatly helped them in their lastc. In this way the customs and institutions of savages have thrown rays of light on the early history of civilised nations. " The proper task of the sociologist is the study of the correlation of social phenomena with other social phenomena, and the reference of the facts of social life to social antecedents, and only when this has been done, or at any rate when this process has made far greater advances than at present, will it be profitable to endeavour to explain the course of social life by psychological processes." ^ At present sociology and social psychology should, so far as possible, be treated as if they were independent disciphnes, because each of them is liable to make assumptions, belonging to the other sde Dce, which are readily mistaken for explanations.
Public domain books are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.
Marks, notations and other niaiginalia present in the original volume will appeal' in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from Ihe publisher to a library and finally lo you.
Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Under religious beliefs and practices there are animism, totemism, ancestor-worship, polytheism, mono- theism. And even in such cases it may often be diflficult or impossible to decide with certainty whether similar customs have a common origin or not. Graebner himself admits that it is possible, although not proved, that identical customs grow up independently among peoples in different parts of the world ; if so. INTRODUCTION have been led quite independently to much the same general position as that of the Gennan school by the results of my ovm work in Oceania."^ If customs and institutions and ideas could speak, they might also perhaps be justilied in defending themselves against the suspicion of being mere borrowings. Gracbncr would say, as he has indeed said in a general way, that in cases of parallelism we must not apply European evidence to savages, who almost entirely lack " the conscious endeavour after further development." ' It seems as though he regarded the customs of savages as almost unchangeable, unless subject to influences from without. * Speacc T and GUIen, Naliv* Tribtt 0/ Ctntrat Austnlia, p. THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE 1 And if this is the case, it is only natural that the changes often should lead to similar results in different instances.
Do not assume Ihat just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Under institutions occiu*, for instance, marriage, clanship, chieftainship, slaver^' ; and under each heat Ung there are sub-headings, hke marriage by consideration, monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, group-marriage. it is obviously also possible that identical i customs grow up independently among peoples who are of the same stock or have come into contact with one another. But there is sufficient proof that they are not so. For the possibilities in cultural development are always limited, and often limited in a very high degree.
Many new acts have been incorporated, and some old ones have been imitted. fi CBtory term known to rr Aer clircclly totheactof beg^ttlngor to the fa-By age, pp. - — The toirelation between the pr Meoce of ■ term of relationitup and ipctinl uitiinl relntio Ri or fanctioru aaaodated with it by no mcaiu complete, pp, 137-IJ9. rtiver«' cooduiion that certaiadtt M&catoiy terras indicate the earlier existence of cr OM-eiraiin marriage, pp. — A common nomenclature for pvnons repte^enlin^ two nr more rektioa tho child to itd father, p. — The males fighting for females among the lower animals, p. In answer to this question Tylor made the following general statement : — " Sometimes it may be ascribed to the hke working of men's minds under hke conditions, and sometimes it is a proof of blood relationship or of intercourse, direct or indirect, between the races among whom it is foimd."' Sir James G. Tylor justly spoke of " the constant difficulty in deciding whether any particular development is due to independent invention, or to transmission from some other people to those among whom it is found " ; ' and this difhculty has certainly not been removed by later investigations. Graebncr lays down two main criteria which, he thinks, enable us to trace similar culture-phenomena to a common source : first, the criterion of form, as he calls it, that is, correspondence of qualities not inlierent to the nature of the object, and secondly, that of ■ Riven, British Astociatiati for tht AAiancemtnt of St M*tc«. It is not a sufficient explanation of a custom to say that it has teen derived from ancestors or borrowed ftom neighbours.